A writer, he first met members of the Bloomsbury group in 1910 but was not fully accepted by them until 1914 when he became Duncan Grant's lover. Like Grant, Garnett was a conscientious objector and having worked in France in 1915 with the Friends War Victims Relief Mission, he worked as a farm labourer to avoid conscription on his return to England. Garnett moved with Duncan Grant and Vanessa Bell to Charleston farmhouse in 1916. He married Angelica Garnett in 1942. He was present at the birth of Grant's daughter, Angelica (by Vanessa Bell, and accepted by her husband Clive Bell), on 25 December 1918, and wrote to a friend shortly afterwards, "I think of marrying it. When she is 20, I shall be 46 – will it be scandalous?". When Angelica was in her early twenties, they did marry (on 8 May 1942), to the horror of her parents.
Garnett was born in Brighton, the only child of the writer, critic and publisher Edward Garnett and his wife Constance, a translator of Russian. As a conscientious objector in the First World War, David worked on fruit farms in Suffolk and Sussex with his lover, Duncan Grant.
Duncan Grant and David Garnett, 1914, by Duncan Grant
David Garnett was bisexual, as were several members of the Bloomsbury Group, and he had affairs with Francis Birrell and Duncan Grant. A writer, he first met members of the Bloomsbury group in 1910 but was not fully accepted by them until 1914 when he became Duncan Grant's lover. Like Grant, Garnett was a conscientious objector and having worked in France in 1915 with the Friends War Victims Relief Mission, he worked as a farm labourer to avoid conscription on his return to England.
David Garnett by Lady Ottoline Morrell (1873-1938). Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Dame Helen Gardner Bequest, 2003. Photographs Collection, NPG Ax140448
David Garnett's friends, Philip and Ottoline Morrell purchased Garsington Manor near Oxford at the beginning of the WW1 and became a refuge for conscientious objectors. Garnett described Garsington in his autobiography, The Flowers of the Forest: "The oak panelling had been painted a dark peacock blue-green; the bare and sombre dignity of Elizabethan wood and stone had been overwhelmed with an almost oriental magnificence: the luxuries of silk curtains and Persian carpets, cushions and pouffes."
Garnett went to live with his lover, Duncan Grant, and his mistress, Vanessa Bell, the wife of Clive Bell, at Wissett Lodge in Suffolk. As Hermione Lee, the author of Virginia Woolf (1996), points out: "Vanessa, who had fallen in love with Duncan Grant before the start of the war, was painting in a farm-cottage on the Sussex coast, living in an uneasy triangle with Duncan and his new lover, David (known as Bunny) Garnett. In 1918 Bell gave birth to Grant's child, Angelica Bell.
David Garnett and Duncan Grant worked on a farm as conscientious objectors but in 1916 a government committee on alternative service refused to let them continue there. They therefore moved to Charleston, near Firle, where they undertook farm work until the end of the war. In 1918 Bell gave birth to Grant's child, Angelica Garnett. His biographer, Quentin Bell has argued: "Despite various homosexual allegiances in subsequent years, Grant's relationship with Vanessa Bell endured to the end."
On 30th March 1921 Garnett married Rachel (Ray) Marshall, the sister of Frances Marshall. The couple had two sons. In 1922 Garnett published the highly successful novel, Lady Into Fox. The money he made from this book enabled him to buy Hilton Hall, an early seventeenth-century house near Huntingdon. In 1923 he joined forces with Francis Meynell to establish the Nonesuch Press. Garnett's wife died of breast cancer in 1940 and he married Angelica in 1942 and over the next few years had 4 children.
Chateau de Charry
After parting from Angelica Bell, David Garnett moved to France and lived at the Chateau de Charry, Montcuq, 25 km outside of Cahors. As one of his friends pointed out: "Here he bottled wine and cooked for his many visitors, and could be seen sitting out of doors under a large straw hat typing away at his latest book." David Garnett died of a cerebral haemorrhage at his home on 17th February 1981. There was no funeral, and his body was given to a French teaching hospital.
A prominent member of the Bloomsbury Group, Garnett received literary recognition when his novel Lady into Fox, an allegorical fantasy, was awarded the 1922 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction. He ran a bookshop near the British Museum with Francis Birrell during the 1920s. He also founded (with Francis Meynell) the Nonesuch Press. He wrote the novel Aspects of Love (1955), on which the later Andrew Lloyd Webber musical was based.
His first wife was illustrator Rachel "Ray" Marshall (1891–1940), sister of translator and diarist Frances Partridge (married 30th March 1921). He and Ray, whose woodcuts appear in some of his books, had two sons, one of whom (Richard) went to Beacon Hill School. Ray died relatively young of breast cancer.
David and Angelica, his second wife, lived at Hilton Hall, Hilton near St Ives in Cambridgeshire where David Grant kept a herd of Jersey cows.
They had four daughters, in order, Amaryllis, Henrietta, and twins Nerissa and Frances; eventually the couple separated. Amaryllis Garnett (1943–1973) was an actress who had a small part in Harold Pinter's film adaptation of The Go-Between (1970). She drowned in the Thames, aged 29. Henrietta Garnett married Lytton Burgo Partridge, her father's nephew by his first wife Ray, but was left a widow with a newborn infant when she was 18; she oversaw the legacies of both David Garnett and Duncan Grant. Nerissa Garnett (1946-2004) was an artist, ceramicist, and photographer. Fanny Garnett moved to France where she became a farmer.
After his separation from Angelica, Garnett moved to France and lived in a pleasant house in the grounds at the Château de Charry, Montcuq (near Cahors) leased to him by the owners, Jo and Angela D'Urville. He continued to write, made friends among the local English community of the locality, and lived there until his death in 1981.
Duncan James Corrowr Grant (21 January 1885 – 8 May 1978) was a British painter and designer of textiles, pottery and theatre sets and costumes. He was a member of the Bloomsbury Group. (P: ©Lady Ottoline Morrell (1873-1938)/NPG Ax141304. Duncan Grant, 1922 (©4))
His father was Bartle Grant, a "poverty-stricken" major in the army, and much of his early childhood was spent in India and Burma. He was a grandson of Sir John Peter Grant, 12th Laird of Rothiemurchus, KCB, GCMG, sometime Lt-Governor of Bengal. Duncan was also the first cousin twice removed of John Grant, 13th Earl of Dysart (b. 1946).
Grant was born on 21 January 1885 in Rothiemurchus at Aviemore in northern Scotland. He attended school in England from 1894, where he was educated at Hillbrow School, a preparatory school in Rugby, and St Paul's School, London. Grant showed little enthusiasm for studying but enjoyed art classes. He was encouraged by his art teacher and also his aunt Lady Strachey, who organised private drawing lessons for him. Eventually, he was allowed to follow his desire to become an artist, rather than join the army as his father wished, and he attended Westminster School of Art in 1902. He then studied art at the Slade School and in Italy and Paris.
He was a cousin, and for some time a lover, of Lytton Strachey. Through the Stracheys, Duncan was introduced to the Bloomsbury Group, where John Maynard Keynes became another of his lovers.
Lady Ottoline Morrell; Maria Huxley (née Nys); Lytton Strachey; Duncan Grant; Vanessa Bell (née Stephen), vintage snapshot print, July 1915, 2 1/2 in. x 4 1/8 in. (62 mm x 104 mm) image size, Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Dame Helen Gardner Bequest, 2003, Photographs Collection, NPG Ax140432
©Lady Ottoline Morrell (1873-1938)/NPG Ax141298. Jean de Menasce; Vanessa Bell (née Stephen); Duncan Grant; Eric Siepmann, 1922 (©4)
Lytton Strachey; Duncan Grant; (Arthur) Clive Bell, by Vanessa Bell (née Stephen), enlarged snapshot print on card folder, 1922, 8 1/2 in. x 6 1/2 in. (216 mm x 165 mm) image size, Purchased, 1979, Photographs Collection, NPG x26568
George Mallory, by Duncan Grant
Garden Path in Spring, by Duncan Grant
George Mallory, by Duncan Grant
Lytton Strachey, 1909, by Duncan Grant
Chattie Salaman, 1942, by Duncan Grant
Vanessa Bell in an Armchair, 1915, by Duncan Grant
Self-Portrait, 1920, by Duncan Grant
Tulips, by Duncan Grant
Vanessa Bell, by Duncan Grant
Grant is best known for his painting style, which developed in the wake of French post-impressionist exhibitions mounted in London in 1910. He often worked with, and was influenced by, another member of the group, art critic and artist Roger Fry. As well as painting landscapes and portraits, Fry designed textiles and ceramics.
After Fry founded the Omega Workshops in 1913, Grant became co-director with Vanessa Bell, who was then involved with Fry. Although Grant had always been actively homosexual, a relationship with Vanessa blossomed, which was both creative and personal, and he eventually moved in with her and her two sons by her husband Clive Bell. In 1916, in support of his application for recognition as a conscientious objector, Grant joined his new lover, David Garnett, in setting up as fruit farmers in Suffolk. Both their applications were initially unsuccessful, but eventually the Central Tribunal agreed to recognise them on condition of their finding more appropriate premises. Vanessa Bell found the house named Charleston near Firle in Sussex. Relationships with Clive Bell remained amicable, and Bell stayed with them for long periods fairly often – sometimes accompanied by his own mistress, Mary Hutchinson.
In 1935 Grant was selected along with nearly 30 other prominent British artists of the day to provide works of art for the RMS Queen Mary then being built in Scotland. Grant was commissioned to provide paintings and fabrics for the first class Main Lounge. In early 1936, after his work was installed in the Lounge, directors from the Cunard Line made a walk-through inspection of the ship. When they saw what Grant had created, they immediately rejected his works and ordered it removed.
Grant is quoted in the book "The Mary - the inevitable ship" by Potter and Frost, as saying:
"I was not only to paint some large murals to go over the fireplaces, but arrange for the carpets, curtains, textiles, all of which were to be chosen or designed by me. After my initial designs had been passed by the committee I worked on the actual designs for four months. I was then told the committee objected to the scale of the figures on the panels. I consented to alter these, and although it entailed considerable changes, I got a written assurance that I should not be asked to make further alterations. I carried on, and from that time my work was seen constantly by the Company's (Cunard's) representative.
When it was all ready I sent the panels to the ship to put the finishing touches to them when hanging. A few days later I received a visit from the Company's man, who told me that the Chairman had, on his own authority, turned down the panels, refusing to give any reason.
From then on, nothing went right. My carpet designs were rejected and my textiles were not required. The whole thing had taken me about a year..... I never got any reason for the rejection of my work. The company simply said they were not suitable, paid my fee, and that was that."
Vanessa very much wanted a child by Duncan, and became pregnant in the spring of 1918. Although it is generally assumed that Duncan's sexual relations with Vanessa ended in the months before Angelica was born (Christmas, 1918), they continued to live together for more than 40 years.
Living with Vanessa was no impediment to Duncan's relationships with men, either before or after Angelica was born. Angelica grew up believing that Clive Bell was her father; she bore his surname and his behaviour toward her never indicated otherwise. Duncan and Vanessa had an open relationship, although she herself apparently never took advantage of this after settling down with him and having their child. Duncan, in contrast, had many physical affairs and several serious relationships with other men, most notably David Garnett. His love and respect for Vanessa, however, kept him with her until her death in 1961.
In Grant's later years, the poet Paul Roche (1916–2007), whom he had known since 1946, took care of him and enabled Grant to maintain his accustomed way of life at Charleston for many years. Roche was made co-heir of Grant's estate. Grant eventually died in Roche's home in 1978.
Duncan Grant's remains are buried beside Vanessa Bell's in the churchyard of St. Peter's Church, West Firle, East Sussex.
John Maynard Keynes, Baron Keynes of Tilton CB, was the preeminent economist of the twentieth century. As an associate of the Bloomsbury Group, he enjoyed love affairs with painter Duncan Grant and psychologist Sebastian Sprott, and wrote love letters to writer Lytton Strachey. In fact, he was with Grant for nearly eight years and supported him financially even after they broke up. Keynes eventually gave up men and married ballerina Lydia Lopokova. (©International Monetary Fund. Assistant Secretary, U.S. Treasury, Harry Dexter White (left) and John Maynard Keynes, honorary advisor to the U.K. Treasury at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund's Board of Governors in Savannah, Georgia, U.S., 1946 (©8))
Attitudes in the Bloomsbury Group, in which Keynes was avidly involved, were relaxed about homosexuality. Keynes, together with writer Lytton Strachey, had reshaped the Victorian attitudes of the Cambridge Apostles: "since [their] time, homosexual relations among the members were for a time common", wrote Bertrand Russell. The artist Duncan Grant, whom he met in 1908, was one of Keynes's great loves. Keynes was also involved with Lytton Strachey, though they were for the most part love rivals, and not lovers. Keynes had won the affections of Arthur Hobhouse, as well as Grant, both times falling out with a jealous Strachey for it. Strachey had previously found himself put off by Keynes, not least because of his manner of "treat[ing] his love affairs statistically".
Keynes' friends in the Bloomsbury Group were initially surprised when, in his later years, he began dating and pursuing affairs with women, demonstrating himself to be bisexual. Ray Costelloe (who would later marry Oliver Strachey) was an early heterosexual interest of Keynes. In 1906, Keynes had written of this infatuation that, "I seem to have fallen in love with Ray a little bit, but as she isn't male I haven't [been] able to think of any suitable steps to take."
J.M. Keynes and Duncan Grant taken sometime prior to 1913 (©19)
Duncan Grant was a British painter and designer. He was a cousin, and for some time a lover, of Lytton Strachey. Through the Stracheys, Duncan was introduced to the Bloomsbury Group, where John Maynard Keynes became another of his lovers. He was in a relationship with Vanessa Bell. Duncan had many serious relationships with men, most notably David Garnett. In Grant's later years, the poet Paul Roche, whom he had known since 1946, took care of him and enabled Grant to maintain his way of life.
In 1921, Keynes wrote that he had fallen "very much in love" with Lydia Lopokova, a well-known Russian ballerina, and one of the stars of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. In the early years of his courtship, he maintained an affair with a younger man, Sebastian Sprott, in tandem with Lopokova, but eventually chose Lopokova exclusively. They married in 1925. The union was happy, with biographer Peter Clarke writing that the marriage gave Keynes "a new focus, a new emotional stability and a sheer delight of which he never wearied". Lydia became pregnant in 1927 but miscarried. Among Keynes's Bloomsbury friends, Lopokova was, at least initially, subjected to criticism for her manners, mode of conversation and supposedly humble social origins – the latter of the ostensible causes being particularly noted in the letters of Vanessa and Clive Bell, and Virginia Woolf. In her novel Mrs Dalloway (1925), Woolf bases the character of Rezia Warren Smith on Lopokova. E. M. Forster would later write in contrition: "How we all used to underestimate her".
Stern, Keith (2009-09-01). Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals (Kindle Locations 6971-6974). BenBella Books, Inc.. Kindle Edition.
Donald Robert Paul Roche (26 September 1916 – 30 October 2007) was a British poet, novelist, and professor of English, a critically acclaimed translator of Greek and Latin classics, notably the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Sappho, and Plautus. Born in Mussoorie, India, Roche was an associate of the Bloomsbury group, especially of painter Duncan Grant, whom he met in the summer of 1946 and who lived with Roche and his family until Grant's death in 1978. (P: Paul Roche in the Studio at Charleston, by kind permission of Pandora Smith)
Duncan Grant was a British painter and designer. He was a cousin, and for some time a lover, of Lytton Strachey. Through the Stracheys, Duncan was introduced to the Bloomsbury Group, where John Maynard Keynes became another of his lovers. He was in a relationship with Vanessa Bell. Duncan had many serious relationships with men, most notably David Garnett. In Grant's later years, Paul Roche took care of him and enabled Grant to maintain his way of life. In 1958 Duncan Grant decorated the Russell Chantry at Lincoln Cathedral, using Roche as the model for Christ. In 1973 they travelled together to Turkey, resulting in the journal With Duncan Grant in Southern Turkey (1982). In 1975 they took a house and spent six months in Tangier, where Paul nursed Grant through pneumonia. Roche was made co-heir of Grant's estate. He was devastated when, in 1978, at the Roche household where he had come to live, Duncan Grant died of bronchial pneumonia at the age of 93.
Paul Roche used his translation of Sophocles', Oedipus the King, to write a screenplay for a film version of the work released in 1968 with Christopher Plummer in the title role. Roche played a small role in the Greek chorus.
Roche was ordained as a priest in 1943 but left priesthood in the 1950s. Marrried twice, he was a father of three children with his first and one with his second wife.
Paul Roche in the Garden, by Duncan Grant, painted circa 1960s
Walter John Herbert Sprott, known to friends as ‘Sebastian’ Sprott, and also known as Jack Sprott (1897–1971), was a British psychologist and writer.
Sprott was educated at Felsted School and Clare College, Cambridge, where he became a member of the Cambridge Apostles. In the 1920s, he became acquainted with other members of the Bloomsbury Group. He was romantically involved with the economist John Maynard Keynes, who was at the time also seeing the ballerina Lydia Lopokova. Sprott's affair with Keynes ended after Keynes married Lopokova. After a job as a demonstrator at the Psychological Laboratory in Cambridge, he moved to the University of Nottingham, where he eventually became professor of philosophy.
©Lady Ottoline Morrell (1873-1938)/NPG Ax142600. Dora Carrington; Stephen Tomlin; Walter John Herbert ('Sebastian') Sprott; Lytton Strachey, 1926 (©4)
Sebastian Sprott was a British psychologist and writer. Charm and wit and oratorical skill led him effortlessly into the magic circle of John Maynard Keynes's close friends; he became an intimate of E.M. Forster, who eventually made him his literary executor, and of Lytton Strachey. He regularly went riding with Keynes, accompanied him on a holiday to Algeria and Tunisia in 1921, and was probably his last male lover. This intimacy, though not the friendship, ended with Keynes's marriage to Lydia Lopokova in 1925.
Days of Love: Celebrating LGBT History One Story at a Time by Elisa Rolle
Paperback: 760 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (July 1, 2014)
CreateSpace Store: https://www.createspace.com/4910282
Amazon (Paperback): http://www.amazon.com/dp/1500563323/?tag=e
Amazon (Kindle): http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00MZG0VHY/?tag=e
Days of Love chronicles more than 700 LGBT couples throughout history, spanning 2000 years from Alexander the Great to the most recent winner of a Lambda Literary Award. Many of the contemporary couples share their stories on how they met and fell in love, as well as photos from when they married or of their families. Included are professional portraits by Robert Giard and Stathis Orphanos, paintings by John Singer Sargent and Giovanni Boldini, and photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnson, Arnold Genthe, and Carl Van Vechten among others. “It's wonderful. Laying it out chronologically is inspired, offering a solid GLBT history. I kept learning things. I love the decision to include couples broken by death. It makes clear how important love is, as well as showing what people have been through. The layout and photos look terrific.” Christopher Bram “I couldn’t resist clicking through every page. I never realized the scope of the book would cover centuries! I know that it will be hugely validating to young, newly-emerging LGBT kids and be reassured that they really can have a secure, respected place in the world as their futures unfold.” Howard Cruse “This international history-and-photo book, featuring 100s of detailed bios of some of the most forward-moving gay persons in history, is sure to be one of those bestsellers that gay folk will enjoy for years to come as reference and research that is filled with facts and fun.” Jack Fritscher
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