elisa_rolle (elisa_rolle) wrote,

Christa Winsloe, Dorothy Thompson & Simone Gentet

The German novelist, dramatist, and screenwriter Christa Winsloe reflected her lesbianism in works that treat sexual identity within societies stratified according to gender roles. In October 1939, in Nice, she met the Swiss writer Simone Gentet, ten years younger, who became her partner.

Winsloe led a life in opposition to the expectations of her family and her society and created from it a body of fiction that portrays the difficulties felt by a woman who does not wish to conform. Her role was to have been that of an army officer's wife; instead, she pursued a career as a sculptress. In 1913, however, she did fulfill her family's desire by marrying the Hungarian Baron Ludwig Hatvany.

Her first literary effort, Das schwarze Schaf (The Black Sheep), dates from the early years of her marriage. The unpublished novel portrays a girl who is a social outsider, both at school and in her career as an artist. She gains acceptance only through marriage to the right man.

Her real life took a different turn. Owing to her husband's numerous affairs, Winsloe went to Munich where she returned to sculpting and also began to write professionally.

Her novella Männer kehren heim (Men Return Home; date unknown) voices the concern that would motivate her fiction, namely, the question of sexual identity within a society stratified according to gender roles. During World War I, a girl is attacked by several soldiers and, to maintain her safety, she dresses in her brother's clothes for the rest of the war.

In 1930, her drama, Ritter Nérestan (Knight Nérestan), premiered in Leipzig. Retitled Gestern und heute (Yesterday and Today) for its Berlin premiere, this play made Winsloe's career as an author. The work became most famous in its film adaptation, Mädchen in Uniform (Girls in Uniform; 1931, directed by Leontine Sagan).

The play tells of the schoolgirl Manuela von Meinhardis, who is forced into the strict confines of a Prussian girls' school. She finds solace and love in her relationship with one of her teachers, Fräulein von Bernburg. After performing the lead male role in the school play, Manuela has too much to drink and openly declares her love for her teacher. 

The headmistress views such feelings as "sinful" and "morbid" and decides Manuela must be expelled. Unable to face separation from her beloved, Manuela commits suicide. Two conclusions were created for the film version. In one, Manuela dies, but in the other she is saved by her classmates. The latter version was deemed unacceptable by American censors; therefore, the former was for decades the only version available in the United States.

Winsloe was involved in a lesbian relationship with the American journalist Dorothy Thompson in the early 1930s, but it ended by 1935. Thompson seems to have been uncomfortable with living as or identifying herself as a lesbian, and Winsloe could not find work in the United States.

Winsloe's novel Life Begins (1935), published only in English, describes a young sculptress who gains the courage to live openly with the woman she loves. The heroine of her last novel, Passagiera (Passengers; 1938), however, has lost that confidence. Her identity as a woman and even as an individual disappears as she submerges herself in the mass of people on board an ocean liner.

Winsloe continued writing, turning to film scripts. One of these films, Aiono (1943) returns to her earlier theme by depicting a Finnish refugee who dresses in male clothing in order to survive.

Winsloe was active in the antifascist movement in France, even hiding refugees in the home she shared with her lover, the Swiss author Simone Gentet. Under circumstances that have never been completely clarified, both women were murdered in early June 1944.

Citation Information
Author: Jones, James W.
Entry Title: Winsloe, Christa
General Editor: Claude J. Summers
Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Culture
Publication Date: 2002
Date Last Updated November 23, 2002
Web Address www.glbtq.com/literature/winsloe_c.html
Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL 60607
Today's Date June 10, 2013
Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.
Entry Copyright © 1995, 2002 New England Publishing Associates

Dorothy Thompson (9 July 1893 – 30 January 1961) was an American journalist and radio broadcaster, who in 1939 was recognized by Time magazine as the second most influential woman in America next to Eleanor Roosevelt. She is notable as the first American journalist to be expelled from Nazi Germany in 1934 and as one of the few women news commentators on radio during the 1930s. Many fondly referred to her as the “First Lady of American Journalism.”

Thompson had a number of affairs with women, including German writer Christa Winsloe (Winsloe joined the French Resistance and with a woman companion, she was shot and killed by four Frenchmen in a forest near the country town of Cluny on June 10, 1944) and Gertrude Van Vranken Franchot Tone (16 Nov 1876, Titusville, Crawford, PA - 16 Apr 1953, Los Angeles Co, CA), mother of actor Franchot Tone.

She was married three times, most famously to second husband and Nobel Prize in literature winner Sinclair Lewis. Thompson married Sinclair Lewis in 1928 and acquired a house in Vermont. They had one son, Michael Lewis, born in 1930. The couple divorced in 1942. In 1923 she married her first husband, Hungarian Joseph Bard; they divorced in 1927. She married her third husband, the artist Maxim Kopf, in 1945, and they were married until Kopf's death in 1958.

Dorothy Thompson was born in Lancaster, New York, in 1894 to Margaret and Peter Thompson. Margaret died when Dorothy was seven (in 1901), leaving Peter, a Methodist preacher, to raise his daughter alone. Peter soon remarried, but Dorothy did not get along with his new wife, Elizabeth Abbott Thompson. In 1908, Peter sent Dorothy to Chicago to live with his two sisters to avoid further conflict. Here, she attended Lewis Institute for two years before transferring to Syracuse University as a junior. At Syracuse, she studied politics and economics and graduated with a degree in 1914. Because she had the opportunity to be educated, unlike many women of the time, Thompson felt strongly that she had a social obligation to fight for women's suffrage in the United States, which would become the base of her ardent political beliefs. Shortly after graduation, Thompson moved to Buffalo, New York and became involved in the women's suffrage campaign. She worked there until 1920, when she went abroad to pursue her journalism career.

After working for women’s suffrage in the United States, Dorothy Thompson relocated to Europe in 1920 to pursue her journalism career. She was interested in the early Zionism movement. Her big break occurred when she visited Ireland in 1920 and was the last to interview Terence MacSwiney, one of the major leaders of the Sinn Féin movement. It was the last interview MacSwiney gave before he was arrested days later and died two months after that. Because of her success abroad, she was appointed Vienna correspondent for the Philadelphia Public Ledger. While working in Vienna, Thompson focused on becoming fluent in German. In 1925, she was promoted to Chief of the Central European Service for the Public Ledger (Philadelphia). She resigned in 1927 and not long after, the New York Post appointed her head of its Berlin bureau in Germany. According to her biographer, Peter Kurth, Thompson was “the undisputed queen of the overseas press corps, the first woman to head a foreign news bureau of any importance.”

During this time Thompson cultivated many literary friends, particularly among exiled German authors.

Thompson's most significant work abroad took place in Germany in the early 1930s. While working in Munich, Thompson met and interviewed Adolf Hitler for the first time in 1931. This would be the basis for her subsequent book, I Saw Hitler. She wrote about the dangers of Hitler winning power in Germany. Thompson described Hitler in the following terms: "He is formless, almost faceless, a man whose countenance is a caricature, a man whose framework seems cartilaginous, without bones. He is inconsequent and voluble, ill poised and insecure. He is the very prototype of the little man." Later, when the full force of Nazism had crashed over Europe, Thompson was asked to defend her "Little Man" remarks; it seemed she had underestimated Hitler. The National Socialists considered both the book and her articles offensive and in August 1934, Thompson was expelled from Germany. She was the first journalist of either gender to be kicked out.

In 1936 Thompson began writing "On the Record," an incredibly successful syndicated newspaper column. It was read by over ten million people and carried by more than 170 papers. She also wrote a monthly column for the Ladies' Home Journal. Thompson wrote a monthly article for the Ladies' Home Journal for twenty-four years (1937–1961); its topics were far removed from war and politics, focusing on gardening, children, art, and other domestic and women's-interest topics.

Around the time same as she started “On the Record”, NBC hired Thompson as a news commentator. She began in 1936 and remained with NBC until 1938. Her radio broadcasts went on to become some of the most popular in the United States, making her one of the most sought after female public speakers of her time. When Adolf Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, Thompson went on the air for fifteen consecutive days and nights.

In 1938, Dorothy Thompson championed the cause of a Polish-German Jew Herschel Grynszpan, whose assassination in Paris of a minor German diplomat, Ernst vom Rath, had been used as propaganda by the Nazis to trigger the events of Kristallnacht in Germany. Thompson's broadcast on NBC radio was heard by millions of listeners, and led to an outpouring of sympathy for the young assassin. Under the banner of the Journalists' Defense Fund, over $40,000 USD was collected, enabling famed European lawyer Vincent de Moro-Giafferi to take up Grynszpan's case. The assassination inspired the composer Michael Tippett to write his oratorio A Child of Our Time as a plea for peace, and as a protest against the persecution of the Jewish people in Nazi Germany. Its haunting use of Negro spirituals to allude to the subjugation of the Jews was particularly innovative.

As Hitler waged war on the Bolsheviks, Thompson took the world stage. She was featured on the cover of Time (magazine) that same year, with an accompanying picture of her speaking into an NBC radio microphone. The article was captioned “she rides in the smoking car” and it named her the second most popular and influential woman in the country behind Eleanor Roosevelt. She was one of the most respected women of her age. This same article explained Thompson’s influence: “Dorothy Thompson is the U. S. clubwoman's woman. She is read, believed and quoted by millions of women who used to get their political opinions from their husbands, who got them from Walter Lippmann.”

In Woman of the Year (1942) Katharine Hepburn played Tess Harding, a character directly based on Dorothy Thompson. The Broadway musical is based on Thompson as well, this time played by Lauren Bacall.

Thompson died, aged 67, in Lisbon, Portugal.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorothy_Thompson

Further Readings:

Child Manuela: The Novel of Maedchen in Uniform (Homosexuality) by Christa Winsloe
Hardcover: 270 pages
Publisher: Ayer Co Pub; Facsimile of 1933 ed edition (June 1975)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0405073771
ISBN-13: 978-0405073779
Amazon: Child Manuela: The Novel of Maedchen in Uniform
Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson: New Women in Search of Love and Power by Susan Hertog 
Hardcover: 512 pages 
Publisher: Ballantine Books; First Edition edition (November 8, 2011) 
Language: English 
ISBN-10: 0345459865 
ISBN-13: 978-0345459862 
Amazon: Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson: New Women in Search of Love and Power

Born in the 1890s on opposite sides of the Atlantic, friends for more than forty years, Dorothy Thompson and Rebecca West lived strikingly parallel lives that placed them at the center of the social and historical upheavals of the twentieth century. In Dangerous Ambition, Susan Hertog chronicles the separate but intertwined journeys of these two remarkable women writers, who achieved unprecedented fame and influence at tremendous personal cost.

American Dorothy Thompson was the first female head of a European news bureau, a columnist and commentator with a tremendous following whom Time magazine once ranked alongside Eleanor Roosevelt as the most influential woman in America. Rebecca West, an Englishwoman at home wherever genius was spoken, blazed a trail for herself as a journalist, literary critic, novelist, and historian. In a prefeminist era when speaking truth to power could get anyone—of either gender—ostracized, blacklisted, or worse, these two smart, self-made women were among the first to warn the world about the dangers posed by fascism, communism, and appeasement.

But there was a price to be paid, Hertog shows, for any woman aspiring to such greatness. As much as they sought voice and power in the public forum of opinion and ideas, and the independence of mind and money that came with them, Thompson and West craved the comforts of marriage and home. Torn between convention and the opportunities of the new postwar global world, they were drawn to men who were as ambitious and hungry for love as themselves: Thompson to the brilliant, volatile, and alcoholic Nobel Prize winner Sinclair Lewis; West to her longtime lover H. G. Wells, the lusty literary eminence whose sexual and emotional demands doomed any chance they may have had at love. Tragically, both arrangements produced troubled sons, whose anger and jealousy at their mothers’ iconic fame eroded their sense of personal success.

Brimming with fresh insights obtained from previously sealed archives, this penetrating dual biography is a story of twinned lives caught up in the crosscurrents of world events and affairs of the heart—and of the unique trans-Atlantic friendship forged by two of the most creative and complex women of their time.

More LGBT History at my website: www.elisarolle.com/, My Ramblings/Gay Classics

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Tags: author: christa winsloe, days of love tb, essayist: dorothy thompson

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