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Ernest Hemingway, Robert McAlmon & F. Scott Fitzgerald

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, and won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections and two non-fiction works. Three novels, four collections of short stories and three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of these are considered classics of American literature.

Hemingway was raised in Oak Park, Illinois. After high school he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star, before leaving for the Italian front to enlist with the World War I ambulance drivers. In 1918, he was seriously wounded and returned home. His wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1922, he married Hadley Richardson, the first of his four wives. The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent, and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway's first novel, was published in 1926. (Picture: Ernest Hemingway and Robert McAlmon)

After his 1927 divorce from Hadley Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer. They divorced after he returned from the Spanish Civil War where he had acted as a journalist, and after which he wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940. They separated when he met Mary Welsh in London during World War II; during which he was present at the Normandy Landings and liberation of Paris.


Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald
There has been speculation on Ernest Hemingway being gay. Truman Capote reportedly called Ernest Hemingway "the greatest old closet queen ever to come down the pike"; F. Scott Fitzgerald's wife, Zelda Fitzgerald, said that Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald behaved like lovers; during Hemingway’s life, rumors persisted of a night when Hemingway made advances on Robert McAlmon (McAlmon claimed Hemingway treated him like he 'was Vicky, the buxom, tough, and beautiful tart of the cabaret'.


Ernest Hemingway and Robert McAlmon


Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald


Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott Fitzgerald

Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and 1940s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.

There has been speculation on Ernest Hemingway being gay. Truman Capote reportedly called Ernest Hemingway "the greatest old closet queen ever to come down the pike" (Conversation with Robert Jennings in 1968); F. Scott Fitzgerald's wife, Zelda Fitzgerald, said that Hemingway and Scott Fitzgerald behaved like lovers; during Hemingway’s life, rumors persisted of a night when Hemingway made advances on Robert McAlmon (McAlmon claimed Hemingway treated him like he 'was Vicky, the buxom, tough, and beautiful tart of the cabaret' (Into Something Rich and Strange: Pages 6-10)). It had been said that Hemingway's homophobia was a cover for his homosexuality.

There are several homosexual characters in Hemingway's books: The Mother of a Queen is about a homosexual bullfighter; in A Simple Enquiry, an Italian major unsuccessfully tries to seduce a young lad; there is boy-loving male artist in Across the River and into the Trees; in Islands in the Stream, a boy has backgammon lessons with an older man and the man talks to the boy about André Gide's homosexuality; The Garden of Eden, published in 1986, is an extraordinary rhapsody on male sexual passivity, with a central character who needs to be penetrated by a woman more boyish than himself.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Hemingway

Further Readings:

Papa Hemingway: A Personal Memoir by A. E. Hotchner
Paperback: 336 pages
Publisher: Da Capo Press; export ed edition (April 5, 2005)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0306814277
ISBN-13: 978-0306814273
Amazon: Papa Hemingway: A Personal Memoir

Between 1948 and 1961, Ernest Hemingway and A. E. Hotchner traveled together from New York to Paris to Spain, fished the waters off Cuba, hunted in Idaho, ran with the bulls in Pamplona—and once Hotchner even masqueraded as a matador and Hemingway’s manager in an actual bullfight. Everywhere they went, they talked. For fourteen years, Hotchner and Hemingway shared their thoughts and as Hemingway reminisced about his childhood, recalled the Paris literary scene of the twenties, and recounted the real events that lay behind his fiction, Hotchner took it all down. His notes on the many occasions he spent with his friend Papa—in Venice and Rome, in Key West, on the Riviera, and in Ketchum, Idaho, where Hemingway died by his own hand in 1961—provide the material for this utterly profound, and truthfully compassionate best-selling memoir about the Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning author. With a new introduction by the author and with never before published photographs from his personal collection, Papa Hemingway is a mesmerizing portrait.

Hemingway: The Paris Years by Michael Reynolds
Paperback: 402 pages
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company (May 1, 1999)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0393318796
ISBN-13: 978-0393318791
Amazon: Hemingway: The Paris Years

The 1920s in Paris are the pivotal years in Hemingway's apprenticeship as a writer, whether sitting in cafés or at the feet of Gertrude Stein.

These are the heady times of the Nick Adams short stories, Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, and the writing of The Sun Also Rises. These are also the years of Hemingway's first marriage to Hadley Richardson, the birth of his first son, and his discovery of the bullfights at Pamplona. 22 photographs.

Hemingway: A Biography by Jeffrey Meyers
Paperback: 734 pages
Publisher: Da Capo Press (May 7, 1999)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0306808900
ISBN-13: 978-0306808906
Amazon: Hemingway: A Biography

Distinguished by its precision, its graceful use of language, and its resonant depth, the innovative style of Nobel Prize-winning author Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) radically altered literary conventions and influenced generations of writers. In The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea, and numerous short stories, he explored such universal themes as stoicism in adversity, as well as our futile struggles against nature and mortality.This evocative, sympathetic biography illuminates the events that informed Hemingway's vigorous life: an accident-prone youth and early rivalry with his father; his experiences in World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II; his stormy relationships with writers and women; his sudden fame, slow decline, and suicide. Based on previously unavailable information and exclusive interviews, Hemingway enriches anyone's understanding and appreciation of America's most important twentieth-century writer.

More LGBT Couples at my website: http://www.elisarolle.com/, My Ramblings/Real Life Romance


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Tags: author: ernest hemingway, gay classics, literary heritage
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