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John Money (July 8, 1921 – July 7, 2006)

John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a psychologist, sexologist and author, specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender. He has been the subject of controversy due to his work with the sex-reassignment of David Reimer.

John William Money was born on July 8, 1921, in Morrinsville, Waikato, New Zealand. He grew up in a conservative, evangelical Christian family, which may have influenced his research focus later in life.

He received his undergraduate degree in psychology from Victoria University in 1943, then emigrated to the United States to pursue graduate education. He studied social relations in the Psychological Clinic at Harvard University, receiving his Ph.D. in 1952. The next year, he joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University Medical School, where he taught and carried out sexology research for over 50 years.

He founded the Psychohormonal Research Unit at Johns Hopkins University Medical School and coined the term "gender role" in 1955, which he later expanded to "gender-identity/role" (GI/R).

Throughout his career, Money authored numerous publications on sexology, including Venuses Penuses in 1986 and the controversial Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, coauthored with Anke Ehrhardt in 1972. In the latter, Money and Ehrhardt expressed the view that gender was malleable and could be altered through external factors such as prescribed hormones and behavior therapy.


John Money, 1991, by Robert Giard (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/brbldl_getrec.asp?fld=img&id=1121546)
American photographer Robert Giard is renowned for his portraits of American poets and writers; his particular focus was on gay and lesbian writers. Some of his photographs of the American gay and lesbian literary community appear in his groundbreaking book Particular Voices: Portraits of Gay and Lesbian Writers, published by MIT Press in 1997. Giard’s stated mission was to define the literary history and cultural identity of gays and lesbians for the mainstream of American society, which perceived them as disparate, marginal individuals possessing neither. In all, he photographed more than 600 writers. (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/digitallibrary/giard.html)
To support this hypothesis, Money cited the "John/Joan" case, in which he advised a Canadian couple whose son's genitals had been severely damaged in a circumcision gone awry to raise the child as a female. The family acted according to this advice; the child underwent surgery to construct a vagina and began estrogen treatment. Money followed "Joan's" progress for five years and declared the treatment successful. However, as soon as "Joan" was informed about the treatment at the age of fourteen, he reclaimed a male identity and underwent sex reassignment surgery. Despite this action, "John" remained deeply troubled and committed suicide in 2004. According to his colleagues, Money was very distressed by the outcome of that case and preferred not to re-examine it. Dr. Richard Green, an emeritus professor at the University of California, Los Angeles and one of Money's former colleagues, publicly defended Money's actions, explaining that Money had no way of knowing that the treatment would backfire. Other researchers, however, find fault with Money's research practices regarding the case. Despite this debate, Money's impact in the field of sexology remains undisputed.

His research marked the first steps toward a new understanding of gender that is still developing today.

Money died of complications from Parkinson's disease on July 7, 2006 in Towson, Maryland. He was survived by eight nieces and nephews.

Many originals of his lectures and research are housed at the Kinsey Institute.

His paper are collected at ONE National Gay and Lesbian Archives. Writings, lectures, course materials, printed materials from research, and miscellaneous items created and collected by psychologist/sexologist Dr. John William Money. The bulk of the collection is a complete carbon-copy set of Money's lectures from his class, "Biosocial Aspects of Human Sexuality" at Johns Hopkins University, in fall 1980. The collection also includes a number of Money's early writings; article off-prints; and his "Autobiographical Statement," later re-titled "Explorations in Human Behavior" and published in the second volume of The History of Clinical Psychology in Autobiography (1993), edited by C. Eugene Walker.

Source: http://www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/kt4779q9bb/

Further Readings:

Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation by John Money
Paperback: 288 pages
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA (June 7, 1990)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0195063317
ISBN-13: 978-0195063318
Amazon: Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation

The term homosexuality did not exist until K.M. Benkert coined it in 1869. The phenomenon, however, has existed probably as long as humans have walked the earth. The many enigmas of sexual orientation that have baffled people for centuries--including what makes some children grow up to be homosexual, while others become heterosexual or bisexual, and to what degree is gender identity determined before birth--continue to do so.
John Money, one of the foremost investigators of human sexuality, cogently addresses many of these questions in this authoritative, thought-provoking study. Drawing on case studies from his sexology clinic, he explores the diverse historical, cultural, and physiological influences that determine sexual orientation. Covering such topics as prenatal and postnatal history, gender differentiation in childhood, and postpubertal hormonal theories, Money offers a much-needed, highly informative, and timely exploration into this important subject.

Sin, Science, and the Sex Police: Essays on Sexology & Sexosophy by John Money
Hardcover: 400 pages
Publisher: Prometheus Books; 1St Edition edition (December 1998)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1573922536
ISBN-13: 978-1573922531
Amazon: Sin, Science, and the Sex Police: Essays on Sexology & Sexosophy

Controversial sexual medicine icon Dr John Money has been on the leading edge of sex research for decades. Supporters and students call him a powerful genius who has changed the face of sex research, blazing new pathways for future scientists and sexologists, especially in the murky area of gender identification and disorders. "Sin, Science, and the Sex Police" contains twenty-nine selections covering both the study of sex (sexology) and the ideology of sex (sexosophy) in which Money, the man who coined the terms 'gender' and 'lovemap', ponders the many dimensions of human sexuality: its biology, the natural coding of sex assignments, how we identify ourselves sexually, the sex roles we play, and more. These fascinating essays explore the compelling topics of eroticism, the ideology of homosexuality, the concept of gender, role and sexual identity, 'antisexualism' in history and religion, Freud, paraphilia, gendermaps and loveblots, lust in humans and animals, evolutionary sexology, the Kama Sutra, masturbation, sexological disorders, sex reassignment, orgasm, body-image, and much more. Money proclaims that while societies have cherished medicine and philosophy as sciences, sex has unfortunately failed to be properly embraced. Always on the cutting edge, always far beyond his time, Money enlightens and fascinates.

Gendermaps: Social Constructionism, Feminism, and Sexosophical History by John Money
Paperback: 168 pages
Publisher: Continuum (June 1, 2002)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0826414249
ISBN-13: 978-0826414243
Amazon: Gendermaps: Social Constructionism, Feminism, and Sexosophical History

Money (pediatrics, medical psychology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine) introduced the concept of gender role in 1955. Here, he explains the concept of gendermaps for general readers, exploring the history of gender differentiation and its impact on contemporary, social constructionist explanations of male and female. He discusses four categories of gender coding, feminism before and after gender, and mismatched gender maps. Can you trust a man who equates men's pornography with women's romance novels?

More Particular Voices at my website: http://www.elisarolle.com/, My Ramblings/Particular Voices


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