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Anne Fausto-Sterling & Paula Vogel

Anne Fausto-Sterling (born July 30, 1944) is the Nancy Duke Lewis Professor of Biology and Gender Studies at Brown University. She participates actively in the field of sexology and has written extensively on the fields of biology of gender, sexual identity, gender identity, and gender roles. Fausto-Sterling is married to Paula Vogel, a Yale professor and Pulitzer-winning playwright. Fausto-Sterling's mother, Dorothy Sterling, was a noted writer and historian, and her father was also a published writer.

Fausto-Sterling received her Bachelor of Arts degree in zoology from University of Wisconsin in 1965 and her Ph.D. in developmental genetics from Brown University in 1970. She has taught at Brown since earning her Ph.D.

She has written two books intended for the general audience. The second edition of the first of those books, Myths of Gender, was published in 1992.

Her second book for the general public is Sexing the Body, published in 2000. She stated that in it she sets out to "convince readers of the need for theories that allow for a good deal of human variation and that integrate the analytical powers of the biological and the social into the systematic analysis of human development."

In a paper entitled "The Five Sexes", in which, according to her, "I had intended to be provocative, but I had also written with tongue firmly in cheek," Fausto-Sterling laid out a thought experiment considering an alternative model of gender containing five sexes: male, female, merm, ferm, and herm. This thought experiment was interpreted by some as a serious proposal or even a theory; advocates for intersexual people stated that this theory was wrong, confusing and unhelpful to the interests of intersexual people. In a later paper ("The Five Sexes, Revisited") she has acknowledged these objections.


Paula Vogel is an American playwright and university professor. She received the 1998 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for her play, How I Learned to Drive. Vogel married Brown University professor and author Ann e Fausto-Sterling in Truro, Massachusetts, on September 26, 2004. "We've been together for 16 years, and we are already accepted within our community and embraced within our family. What is surprising is the emotion of it being legal - to realize that marriage is not just a personal commitment"

Fausto-Sterling also takes an interest in how flatworms (more precisely planaria) manage to reproduce themselves asexually.

"Of Gender and Genitals" is the third chapter of Myths About Gender by Anne Fausto-Sterling (referred to as FS), a sexology and gender studies expert. The chapter starts with a case study description of sickle cell anemia, including the distinction hemoglobins and the risk of having hemoglobin-S crystallize, which leads to intense pain and potential paralysis in times of stress. The lecture on sickle cell anemia ends with two simple conclusions: the first is that a slight alteration to a DNA sequence will leave major changes to the DNA on the whole; the second is that traits and defects cannot be easily predicted. Fausto-Sterling's data goes on to state that genes alone do not decide phenotypes; phenotypes are instead decided by the environmental and developmental history of the person, in addition to their total genetic endowment. In the same regard, behavior is not solely decided by only genetics. The data further goes on to state that while the number of nerves is decided in the former half of pregnancy, cellular interconnection continues to multiply and grow throughout the first four years of life. In addition, the mind and temperament of an adult is shaped by the environment he or she is raised in. Factors included, physical fitness, nutrition, and interpersonal relations with other people. Through these studies and analytical work, the following four gender development theories of biological determinist, psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive development have been devised.

Following an abridged summary of the prior, Fausto-Sterling continues forward and further shows her points on the gender development theories by noting how XY and XX chromosomes stay identical up until the 6th week of development in the womb. During these six weeks, the XY/XX embryos develop an indifferent gonad, an extra layer that isn't affected by the chromosome embryo due to their indistinguishable similarity at the time. This external process develops in a similar manner to the various male and female reproductive organs that later develop within the body. By the end of the first month and a half, all embryos would've developed, regardless of gender. In addition, the chromosomes within the cells will have developed different sets of Mesonephric ducts that are indifferent to gender. A set of ducts ultimately becomes the aforementioned reproductive organs based on the gender of the fetus. Once the Y chromosome in the XY embryo triggers, an extensive and lengthy process is detailed on the development of male fetuses. Conversely, far less is known on the development of XX fetuses. What is known about the female XX is that the fetuses produce approximately the same amount of estrogen in comparison to the testosterone production in the male XY. Later down the line of fetus growth, the originally identical genitalia of the two types of fetus will differentiate on the eighth week. In some cases the XY fetus will initially begin to develop a female crotch instead of the male penis and scrotum due to a deficiency in dihydrotestosterone. After detailing the opinions of John Money and Julianne Imperato-McGuinely on gender identity, Fausto-Sterling concludes with the three influences that affect gender – genetic regulatory information, intrusion from outside the womb, and "chance variation" in development – and two points on sexual development."

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne_Fausto-Sterling

Paula Vogel (born 16 November 1951) is an American playwright and university professor. She received the 1998 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for her play, How I Learned to Drive.

Vogel was born in Washington, D.C. to Donald Stephen Vogel, an advertising executive, and Phyllis Rita Bremerman, a secretary for United States Postal Service Training and Development Center. She is a graduate of The Catholic University of America (1974, B.A.) and Cornell University (1976, M.A.). Vogel also attended Bryn Mawr College from 1969 to 1970 and 1971 to 1972.

A productive playwright since the late 1970s, Vogel first came to national prominence with her AIDS-related seriocomedy The Baltimore Waltz, which won the Obie award for Best Play in 1992. She is best known for her Pulitzer Prize-winning play How I Learned to Drive (1997), which examines the impact and echoes of child sexual abuse and incest. Other notable plays include Desdemona, A Play About A Handkerchief (1979); The Oldest Profession (1981); And Baby Makes Seven (1984); Hot 'N Throbbing (1994); and The Mineola Twins (1996).

Although no particular theme or topic dominates her work, she often examines traditionally controversial issues such as sexual abuse and prostitution. Asserting that she "writes the play backwards," moving from emotional circumstances and character to craft narrative structure, Vogel says, "My writing isn't actually guided by issues.... I only write about things that directly impact my life." Vogel adds, "If people get upset, it's because the play is working." Vogel's family, especially her late brother Carl Vogel, influences her writings. Vogel says, "In every play, there are a couple of places where I send a message to my late brother Carl. Just a little something in the atmosphere of every play to try and change the homophobia in our world." Carl's likeness appears in such plays as The Long Christmas Ride Home (2003), The Baltimore Waltz, and And Baby Makes Seven.


Paula Vogel, 1999, by Robert Giard (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/dl_crosscollex/brbldl_getrec.asp?fld=img&id=1125724)
American photographer Robert Giard is renowned for his portraits of American poets and writers; his particular focus was on gay and lesbian writers. Some of his photographs of the American gay and lesbian literary community appear in his groundbreaking book Particular Voices: Portraits of Gay and Lesbian Writers, published by MIT Press in 1997. Giard’s stated mission was to define the literary history and cultural identity of gays and lesbians for the mainstream of American society, which perceived them as disparate, marginal individuals possessing neither. In all, he photographed more than 600 writers. (http://beinecke.library.yale.edu/digitallibrary/giard.html)
"Vogel tends to select sensitive, difficult, fraught issues to theatricalize," theatre theorist Jill Dolan comments, "and to spin them with a dramaturgy that’s at once creative, highly imaginative, and brutally honest." Her work embraces theatrical devices from across several traditions, incorporating, in various works, direct address, bunraku puppetry, omniscient narration, and fantasy sequences. Critic David Finkel finds this breadth in Vogel's career to be reflective of a general tendency toward stylistic reinvention from work to work. "This playwright recoils at the notion of writing plays that are alike in their composition," Finkel writes. "She wants each play to be different in texture from those that have preceded it."

Vogel, a renowned teacher of playwriting, counts among her former students Susan Smith Blackburn Prize-winner Bridget Carpenter, Obie Award-winner Adam Bock, MacArthur Fellow Sarah Ruhl, and Pulitzer Prize-winners Nilo Cruz and Lynn Nottage.

During her two decades leading the graduate playwriting program and new play festival at Brown University, Vogel helped developed a nationally-recognized center for educational theatre, culminating in the creation of the Brown/Trinity Repertory Company Consortium with Oskar Eustis, then Trinity's artistic director, in 2002. She left Brown in 2008 to assume her current posts as adjunct professor and the Chair of the playwriting department at Yale School of Drama, and the Playwright-in-Residence at Yale Repertory Theatre. Vogel previously served as an instructor at Cornell University during her graduate work in the mid-1970s.

Recently Second Stage Theatre announced that they would be producing How I Learned to Drive as a part of their 2011-2012 season. It will be the first New York City production of this show in 15 years.

Vogel had two brothers: Carl, who died of AIDS in 1988, and Mark. Carl is namesake for the Carl Vogel Center in Washington, D.C., founded by their father Don Vogel. The Center is a service provider for people living with HIV.

Vogel married Brown University professor and author Anne Fausto-Sterling in Truro, Massachusetts, on September 26, 2004.

Subsequent to her Obie Award for Best Play (1992) and Pulitzer Prize in Drama (1998), Vogel received the Award for Literature from The American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2004.

She won the 1998 Susan Smith Blackburn Prize.

In 2003, the Kennedy Center American College Theater Festival created an annual Paula Vogel Award in Playwriting for "the best student-written play that celebrates diversity and encourages tolerance while exploring issues of dis-empowered voices not traditionally considered mainstream."

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paula_Vogel

Further Readings:

The Baltimore Waltz and Other Plays by Paula Vogel
Paperback: 300 pages
Publisher: Theatre Communications Group (November 1, 1995)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1559361093
ISBN-13: 978-1559361095
Amazon: The Baltimore Waltz and Other Plays

The first major collection of plays by leading lesbian playwright Paula Vogel.

Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World (The Routledge Series Integrating Science and Culture) by Anne Fausto-Sterling
Paperback: 160 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (April 18, 2012)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0415881463
ISBN-13: 978-0415881463
Amazon: Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World (The Routledge Series Integrating Science and Culture)
Amazon Kindle: Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social World (The Routledge Series Integrating Science and Culture)

Sex/Gender presents a relatively new way to think about how biological difference can be produced over time in response to different environmental and social experiences.

This book gives a clearly written explanation of the biological and cultural underpinnings of gender. Anne Fausto-Sterling provides an introduction to the biochemistry, neurobiology, and social construction of gender with expertise and humor in a style accessible to a wide variety of readers. In addition to the basics, Sex/Gender ponders the moral, ethical, social and political side to this inescapable subject.

More Particular Voices at my website: http://www.elisarolle.com/, My Ramblings/Particular Voices

More Real Life Romances at my website:
http://www.elisarolle.com/, My Ramblings/Real Life Romance


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Tags: author: paula vogel, days of love tb, essayist: anne fausto-sterling, particular voices
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