The greatest love affair of Newton’s life was with a fellow mathematician, Fatio de Duillier. They lived together for several years, and when they broke up in 1693, Newton suffered symptoms of a nervous breakdown. (Stern, Keith (2009-09-01). Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals (Kindle Locations 9061-9064). Perseus Books Group. Kindle Edition.)
Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies could be described by the same principles. By deriving Kepler's laws of planetary motion from his mathematical description of gravity, Newton removed the last doubts about the validity of the heliocentric model of the cosmos.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. In addition to his work on the calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, and developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. He was a devout but unorthodox Christian and, unusual for a member of the Cambridge faculty, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. In addition to his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton also dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society. He also served the British government as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint.
Newton had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared controversy and criticism. He was close to the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, whom he met in London around 1690. In 1691, Duillier started to write a new version of Newton's Principia, and corresponded with Leibniz. In 1693 the relationship between Duillier and Newton deteriorated, and at the same time Newton suffered a nervous breakdown, and the book was never completed. Some of their correspondence has survived.
Newton never married. Although it is impossible to verify, it is commonly believed that he died a virgin, as has been commented on by such figures as mathematician Charles Hutton, economist John Maynard Keynes, and physicist Carl Sagan.
French writer and philosopher Voltaire, who was in London at the time of Newton's funeral, claimed to have verified the fact, writing that "I have had that confirmed by the doctor and the surgeon who were with him when he died". In 1733, Voltaire publicly stated that Newton "had neither passion nor weakness; he never went near any woman".
Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (alternative names are Facio or Faccio; 26 February 1664 – 12 May 1753) was a Swiss mathematician known for his work on the zodiacal light problem, for his very close relationship with Isaac Newton, for his role in the Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, and for originating the "push" or "shadow" theory of gravitation. He also developed and patented a method of perforating jewels for use in clocks. (P: Nicolas Fatio, around 1700)
Fatio was born in 1664 as the seventh of fourteen children of Jean-Baptiste and Cathérine Fatio in Basel, Switzerland. The family moved in 1672 to Duillier. In 1682 at the age of 18 Fatio travelled to Paris to perform astronomical studies under the astronomer Giovanni Domenico Cassini at the Parisian observatory. In 1686, Fatio by chance became a witness to a conspiracy aimed at William of Orange, which he helped to foil. In the same year he made the acquaintance of Jakob Bernoulli and Christiaan Huygens, with whom a particularly close cooperation was developed. The main content of their work was the calculus. In 1687 he traveled to London and made the acquaintance of John Wallis and Edward Bernard (1638-1697) and worked out a solution of the inverse tangent problem. He also was on friendly terms with Gilbert Burnet, John Locke, Richard Hampden and his son John Hampden. He became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1688 on the recommendation of John Hoskyns.
He was a close friend of Isaac Newton, and from the beginning he was impressed by Newton's gravitational theory. In 1691, he planned to prepare a new edition of Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, but never finished it. In 1694, their relationship diminished. At this time, several letter exchanges with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz also took place.
In 1707, Fatio came under the influence of a fanatical religious sect, the Camisards, which ruined Fatio's reputation. He left England and took part in pilgrim journeys across Europe. After his return only a few scientific documents by him appeared. He died in 1753 in Maddersfield near Worcester, England. After his death his Geneva compatriot Georges-Louis Le Sage tried to purchase the scientific papers of Fatio. These papers together with Le Sage's are now in the Library of the University of Geneva.
Eventually he retired to Worcester, where he formed some congenial friendships, and busied himself with scientific pursuits, alchemy, and the mysteries of the cabbala. In 1732 he endeavoured, but it is thought unsuccessfully, to obtain through the influence of John Conduitt [q. v.], Newton's nephew, some reward for having saved the life of the Prince of Orange. He assisted Conduitt in planning the design, and writing the inscription for Newton's monument in Westminster Abbey. He died on 28 April or 12 May 1753 (Gent. Mag. xxiii. 248), and was buried at the church of St. Nicholas, Worcester (Green, Worcester, ii. 93–4; cf. Nash, Worcestershire, vol. ii. supplement, p. 101).
Fatio was concerned in the famous quarrel between Newton and Leibniz. He had visited Newton at Cambridge in November 1692. Newton gave him money, and offered to make him a regular allowance on the condition of his permanently residing at Cambridge (letter of Newton, dated 14 March 1692–3, in Nichols, Illustr. of Lit. iv. 58). Fatio was unworthy of his patron. Hearne says that he was ‘a sceptick in religion, a person of no virtue, but a mere debauchee,’ and he relates how Fatio ‘got by his insinuation and cunning a vast sum of money’ from his pupil the Duke of Bedford (Collections, Oxf. Hist. Soc., ii. 244). Fatio alleged that he had convinced Newton of certain mistakes in the ‘Principia’ (Rigaud, Historical Essay, p. 100; Edinburgh Transactions, 1829, xii. 71). He puts himself on a par with Newton, and in a letter to Huyghens, dated 1691, writes that it is really unnecessary to ask Newton to prepare a new edition. ‘However,’ he adds, ‘I may possibly undertake it myself, as I know no one who so well and thoroughly understands a good part of this book as I do.’ Huyghens gravely wrote on the margin of this letter ‘Happy Newton’ (Kemble, State Papers and Correspondence, pp. 426–7). When Leibniz sent a set of problems for solution to England he mentioned Newton and failed to mention Fatio among those probably capable of solving them (ib. p. 428). Fatio retorted by sneering at Leibniz as the ‘second inventor’ of the calculus in a tract entitled ‘Lineæ brevissimæ descensus investigatio geometrica duplex, cui addita est investigatio geometrica solidi rotundi in quo minima fiat resistentia,’ 4to, London, 1699 (p. 18). In replying to Fatio (Acta Eruditorum, 1700, p. 203) Leibniz appealed to Newton himself as having admitted the independent discovery. Fatio sent a reply to the editors of the ‘Acta Eruditorum,’ but they refused to print it on the ground of their aversion to controversy (ib. 1701, p. 134). Finally he stirred up the whole Royal Society to take a part in the dispute (Brewster, Memoirs of Sir I. Newton, 2nd edit. ii. 1–5).
Days of Love: Celebrating LGBT History One Story at a Time by Elisa Rolle
Paperback: 760 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (July 1, 2014)
CreateSpace Store: https://www.createspace.com/4910282
Amazon (Paperback): http://www.amazon.com/dp/1500563323/?tag=e
Amazon (Kindle): http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00MZG0VHY/?tag=e
Days of Love chronicles more than 700 LGBT couples throughout history, spanning 2000 years from Alexander the Great to the most recent winner of a Lambda Literary Award. Many of the contemporary couples share their stories on how they met and fell in love, as well as photos from when they married or of their families. Included are professional portraits by Robert Giard and Stathis Orphanos, paintings by John Singer Sargent and Giovanni Boldini, and photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnson, Arnold Genthe, and Carl Van Vechten among others. “It's wonderful. Laying it out chronologically is inspired, offering a solid GLBT history. I kept learning things. I love the decision to include couples broken by death. It makes clear how important love is, as well as showing what people have been through. The layout and photos look terrific.” Christopher Bram “I couldn’t resist clicking through every page. I never realized the scope of the book would cover centuries! I know that it will be hugely validating to young, newly-emerging LGBT kids and be reassured that they really can have a secure, respected place in the world as their futures unfold.” Howard Cruse “This international history-and-photo book, featuring 100s of detailed bios of some of the most forward-moving gay persons in history, is sure to be one of those bestsellers that gay folk will enjoy for years to come as reference and research that is filled with facts and fun.” Jack Fritscher
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