elisa_rolle (elisa_rolle) wrote,

Aphra Behn & John Hoyle

Aphra Behn, known to her contemporaries as a "scandal" for both her writings and her flamboyant personal life, was one of the most influential dramatists of the late seventeenth century. Today, she is better known as a poet and novelist than playwright, and her extraordinary biography remains intriguing. Her birth name and parentage is a mystery. She was probably born in Wye, in 1640. Speculations about her early life include the possibility of several sets of parents. (P: ©Sir Peter Lely (1618–1680)/Yale Center for British Art. Aphra Behn, ca. 1670 (©4))

A biographical essay by "One of the Fair Sex," affixed to the collection of The Histories and Novels of the Late Ingenious Mrs. Behn (1696), maintains that Aphra was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Johnson of Canterbury, whom Aphra accompanied, along with a young boy supposed to be her brother, on a voyage to the West Indies in 1663. Johnson, who was to have had an official appointment, died on the way. The mother and two children lived for a while in Surinam, then a Dutch possession, and Behn's most famous novel, Oronooko or The Royal Slave (1688), is based on her experiences there.

Upon Behn's return to England in 1664, she met and might have married a Dutch merchant whose name she took. Soon after, in 1665, he died, leaving Aphra without financial support. Perhaps because of her association, through him, with the Dutch and her knowledge of the language from her trip to Surinam, she was appointed an intelligence gatherer for King Charles II, who was to pay her expenses for a trip to Antwerp as his spy.

The King, however, did not pay, and Behn's requests for money for her trip home were not answered. In December 1666, she was forced to borrow from a friend for passage back to England. Charles refused to reimburse her, and in 1668, Behn was put in debtor's prison.

After her release, Behn determined never to depend on anyone else for money again, and she earned her living first in the theater and then as a novelist until her death on April 16, 1689. Behn was one of the period's foremost writers, with over twenty published plays produced on the London stage.

Claimed by Vita Sackville-West to be the first woman in England to earn her living by writing, Behn was a dramatist when women were just being permitted to act on the English stage, and when no other woman was known as a playwright. She is also now acknowledged to be the first English novelist, as her two-volume book, Love Letters Between a Nobleman and His Sister (1682-1685), appeared in serial form years before the book traditionally cited as the first English novel, Pamela or Virtue Rewarded by Samuel Richardson, was published in 1740.

Behn's close association with royalty, especially her friendship with the King's mistress, Nell Gwyn, and her long-standing liaison with John Hoyle, whose affairs with other men were notorious, made Behn a prime subject for court and theater gossip. Widowed early, she refused to remarry and declared that she would not have been criticized so strongly if she had been a man.

In a century when female behavior was socially circumscribed, the scandal of Behn's activities was not so much what she did, but the public way in which she did it, and the very public way she wrote about herself and her friends. Many of her poems document her relationships with other women, some are standard heterosexual romances, and others are clever and unusual treatments of taboo subjects such as rape, impotence, and male homosexuality.

The majority of Behn's poetry was published in two collections that also include longer narrative works combining prose and poems. Most of her poems, however, are short lyric verses that reflect the customary English use of classical, pastoral, courtly, and musical modes, as well as the more recent satirical wit of her contemporaries. They also express her own unconventional attitudes.

Just as Behn was notorious for presenting sensational subjects on stage despite societal taboos, she achieved a reputation for unusually explicit accounts of erotic and sexual episodes in her poems. Many of these celebrated gay male and lesbian relationships.

In recognition of her homoerotic predilection as well as her poetic achievement, Behn was heralded as a successor of Sappho of Lesbos by her admirers in a series of introductory poems that preface the collections of her works. She was also compared to her predecessor, the poet Katherine Philips, who wrote poems about her own romantic liaisons with other women. Known as "The Incomparable Astrea," a complimentary title based on the code name she had used when she was Charles II's spy, Behn only subtly masked the true identities of her associates in her poetry, frequently employing some classical or pastoral disguise; and sometimes she outspokenly used their true names.

Behn's poetry, therefore, was, in a sense, less public than her plays or her prose fiction since it depended, in many cases, on the enlightened audience's recognition of her topics for full comprehension of both the expression and implications of her verse. Such poetic technique involved a skill and craft that earned her the compliments of her cohorts as one who, despite her female form, had a male intelligence and masculine powers of reason.

Since the term androgyne implied not only a female with male characteristics of reason, but one with a presumptively male attraction to other women, this high praise was a tacit recognition of Behn's sexual identity as well as a compliment to her verse.

Citation Information
Author: Stiebel, Arlene M.
Entry Title: Behn, Aphra
General Editor: Claude J. Summers
Publication Name: glbtq: An Encyclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual,
Transgender, and Queer Culture
Publication Date: 2002
Date Last Updated October 26, 2002
Web Address www.glbtq.com/literature/behn_a.html
Publisher glbtq, Inc.
1130 West Adams
Chicago, IL 60607
Today's Date April 16, 2014
Encyclopedia Copyright: © 2002-2006, glbtq, Inc.
Entry Copyright © 1995, 2002 New England Publishing Associates

Days of Love: Celebrating LGBT History One Story at a Time by Elisa Rolle
Paperback: 760 pages
Publisher: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 1 edition (July 1, 2014)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1500563323
ISBN-13: 978-1500563325
CreateSpace Store: https://www.createspace.com/4910282
Amazon (Paperback): http://www.amazon.com/dp/1500563323/?tag=elimyrevandra-20
Amazon (Kindle): http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00MZG0VHY/?tag=elimyrevandra-20

Days of Love chronicles more than 700 LGBT couples throughout history, spanning 2000 years from Alexander the Great to the most recent winner of a Lambda Literary Award. Many of the contemporary couples share their stories on how they met and fell in love, as well as photos from when they married or of their families. Included are professional portraits by Robert Giard and Stathis Orphanos, paintings by John Singer Sargent and Giovanni Boldini, and photographs by Frances Benjamin Johnson, Arnold Genthe, and Carl Van Vechten among others. “It's wonderful. Laying it out chronologically is inspired, offering a solid GLBT history. I kept learning things. I love the decision to include couples broken by death. It makes clear how important love is, as well as showing what people have been through. The layout and photos look terrific.” Christopher Bram “I couldn’t resist clicking through every page. I never realized the scope of the book would cover centuries! I know that it will be hugely validating to young, newly-emerging LGBT kids and be reassured that they really can have a secure, respected place in the world as their futures unfold.” Howard Cruse “This international history-and-photo book, featuring 100s of detailed bios of some of the most forward-moving gay persons in history, is sure to be one of those bestsellers that gay folk will enjoy for years to come as reference and research that is filled with facts and fun.” Jack Fritscher

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